Evolutionary Polynomial Regression-Based Models for the One-Dimensional Compression of Chamkhaleh Sand Mixed with EPS and Tire Derived Aggregate

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor- Civil Engineering School- Iran University of Science and Technology

2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran


The use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) and tire derived aggregate (TDA) as soil stabilization materials has received considerable attention in the last few decades. With the increased use of these products for stabilization purposes, investigating their stress-strain behavior emerges as a crucial endeavor. One of the most widely-used methods employed for evaluating the stress-strain behavior of such mixtures under varying overburden pressures is oedometer testing. In this study, the results of oedometer tests on mixtures of sand and EPS beads, as well as sand and TDA, are used to develop Evolutionary Polynomial Regression-based models for both sand-EPS and sand-TDA mixtures. The models presented are developed based on the results of laboratory oedometer tests on the aforesaid mixtures, under different overburden pressures, different relative densities and varying contents of EPS or TDA. Subsequently, by performing multivariate parametric studies on the presented models, the effect of the simultaneous variations of the influencing parameters on the resulting settlement has been investigated. In addition, by carrying out sensitivity analyses, it was found that among the studied parameters, the relative density had the least effect on the resulting settlement for both sand-EPS and sand-TDA mixtures, while the EPS content is the most effective parameter in the settlement of sand-EPS mixtures and for the sand-TDA mixtures, both the TDA content and the overburden pressure had the most effect.


Main Subjects

[1] T.B. Edil, P.J. Bosscher, Engineering properties of tire chips and soil mixtures, Geotechnical testing journal, 17(4) (1994) 453-464.
[2] R. Jamshidi Chenari, M. Karimpour-Fard, J. Shafie, A. Ghorbanpour, Tire Shreds and Tire Crumbs Inclusion: Contrast Effects on Bearing Capacity of Sand, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 22(9) (2017) 3649-3667.
[3] P. Riahi, R. Jamshidi Chenari, M. Karimpour-Fard, Mechanical properties of sand-TDA mixtures in large scale direct shear test, Proceeding Geotechnical Engineering Infrastructure Development, ICE Publishing, London, (2015) 3323-3328.
[4] M. Mashiri, J. Vinod, M.N. Sheikh, H.-H. Tsang, Shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of sand–tyre chip mixtures, Soils and Foundations, 55(3) (2015) 517-528.
[5] R. Noorzad, M. Raveshi, Mechanical behavior of waste tire crumbs– sand mixtures determined by triaxial tests, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 35(4) (2017) 1793-1802.
[6] G.J. Foose, C.H. Benson, P.J. Bosscher, Sand reinforced with shredded waste tires, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122(9) (1996) 760-767.
[7] J. Mandal, S. Kumar, C. Meena, Centrifuge modeling of reinforced soil slopes using tire chips. GSP 140. Slopes and retaining structures under seismic & static conditions, Geotechnical Special publication, (130-142) (2005) 24-26.
[8] M. Neaz Sheikh, M. Mashiri, J. Vinod, H.-H. Tsang, Shear and compressibility behavior of sand–tire crumb mixtures, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 25(10) (2012) 1366-1374.
[9] G.V. Rao, R. Dutta, Compressibility and strength behaviour of sand–tyre chip mixtures, Geotechnical & Geological Engineering, 24(3) (2006) 711-724.
[10]N. Shariatmadari, M. Karimpour-Fard, A. Shargh, Undrained monotonic and cyclic behavior of sand-ground rubber mixtures, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 17(3) (2018) 541-553.
[11]N. Shariatmadari, M. Karimpour-Fard, A. Shargh, An Experimental Investigation of Liquefaction Resistance of Sand–Ground Rubber Mixtures, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering, 42 (2018) 217-230.
[12]N. Shariatmadari, M. Karimpour-Fard, A. Shargh, Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential in Sand–Tire Crumb Mixtures Using the Energy Approach, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 17(2) (2019) 181- 191.
[13]R. Jamshidi Chenari, A. Firoozfar, S. Attari, A. Izadi, S.E. Shafiei, Deformation Characteristics of Sand Geofoam Blocks using Large-Scale Oedometer Apparatus, Civil Engineering Journal, 3(8) (2017) 585-593.
[14]H.l. Liu, A. Deng, J. Chu, Effect of different mixing ratios of polystyrene pre-puff beads and cement on the mechanical behaviour of lightweight fill, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 24(6) (2006) 331-338.
[15]L. Miao, F. Wang, J. Han, W. Lv, J. Li, Properties and applications of cement-treated sand-expanded polystyrene bead lightweight fill, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 25(1) (2012) 86-93.
[16]Y. Xiao, X. He, H. Liu, New lightweight geomaterials: Biocemented sand mixed with expanded polystyrene beads, Science China Technological Sciences, 60(7) (2017) 1118-1120.
[17]W. Zhu, M. Li, C. Zhang, G. Zhao, Density and strength properties of sand-expanded polystyrene beads mixture, Proc., Characterization, Monitoring, and Modeling of Geosystems, GSP, 179 (2008) 36-43.
[18]A. Deng, Y. Xiao, Measuring and modeling proportion-dependent stress-strain behavior of EPS-sand mixture 1, International Journal of Geomechanics, 10(6) (2010) 214-222.
[19]M. Karimpour-Fard, R. Jamshidi Chenari, F. Soheili, Shear strength characteristics of sand mixed with EPS beads using large direct shear apparatus, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 20(8) (2015) 2205-2220.
[20]R. Jamshidi Chenari, M. Karimpour-Fard, S.P. Maghfarati, F. Pishgar, S.L. Machado, An investigation on the geotechnical properties of sand–EPS mixture using large oedometer apparatus, Construction and Building Materials, 113 (2016) 773-782.
[21]R. Alaie, R. Jamshidi Chenari, Dynamic Properties of EPS-Sand Mixtures Using Cyclic Triaxial and Bender Element Tests, Geosynthetics International, (2019) 1-45.
[22]O. Giustolisi, D.A. Savic, A symbolic data-driven technique based on evolutionary polynomial regression, Journal of Hydroinformatics, 8(3) (2006) 207-222.
[23]A. Ahangar-Asr, A. Faramarzi, N. Mottaghifard, A.A. Javadi, Modeling of Permeability and Compaction Characteristics of Soils Using Evolutionary Polynomial Regression, Computers and Geosciences, 37(11) (2011) 1860-1869.
[24]M. Rezania, A.A. Javadi, O. Giustolisi, An evolutionary-based data mining technique for assessment of civil engineering systems, Engineering Computations, 25(6) (2008) 500-517.
[25]C.H. Ting, S.K. Shukla, N. Sivakugan, Arching in soils applied to inclined mine stopes, International Journal of Geomechanics, 11(1) (2010) 29-35.
[26]J. Lovisa, N. Sivakugan, Tall oedometer testing: method to account for wall friction, International Journal of Geomechanics, 15(2) (2014) 04014045.
[27]T.J. Ross, Fuzzy logic with engineering applications, Wiley Online Library, 2004.