Ground control methods in high stress ground conditions in civil and mining tunnels- case studies and benchmarking

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mining & Metallurgical Engineering, Curtin University, Western Australian School of Mines (WASM-MECE), Australia


Extreme ground behaviour in high stress rock masses such as rockburst prone and squeezing ground conditions are encountered in a range of underground projects both in civil and mining applications. Determining the most appropriate support system in such grounds is one of the major challenges for ground control engineers because there are many contributing factors to be considered, such as the rock mass parameters, the stress condition, the type and performance of the support systems, the condition of major geological structures and the size and geometry of the underground excavation. The main characteristics and support requirements of rockburst-prone and squeezing ground conditions are critically reviewed and characteristics of support functions are discussed. Different types of energy-absorbing rockbolts and other internal and external support elements applicable for ground support in rockburst-prone and squeezing grounds, are introduced. Important differences in the choice and economics of ground support strategies in high stress ground conditions between civil tunnels and mining excavations discussed. Ground support benchmarking data and mitigation measures for mines and civil tunnels in burst-prone and squeezing grounds conditions are briefly presented by some examples in practice. The importance of application of shotcrete shell with yielding elements in squeezing ground conditions have been presented in detail by a simplified Convergence Confinement Method (CCM) example.


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