Hydraulic Jump in a Rough Sudden Symmetric Expansion Channel

Document Type : Research Article


1 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran.

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, East Azerbaijan, Iran

4 Dept. Civil Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, ─░zmir, 35430, Turkey


Control of the high velocity and kinetic energy of the flow downstream of the hydraulic structures to prevent the erosion of the channel bed is one of the most important concerns of hydraulic engineers. For this reason, energy dissipation structures are used. The sudden symmetrical expanding channel is an energy-dissipation structure that requires minimal tailwater depth for the formation of hydraulic jumps. Rough beds are important for reducing stilling basin dimensions and the effect of the roughness elements impact the hydraulic jump. The effect of bat-shaped elements in a sudden expansion channel has been investigated here. The experiments were performed in a rectangular channel with symmetric expansion ratios of 0.67, 0.5, and 0.33, and a Froude number that ranged from 4.6 to 11.3. The results showed that the shear stress in a rough bed of a sudden expansion channel was more than 12 times greater than the shear stress in a smooth prismatic channel. Also, the secondary depth and S-jump length in a rough bed compared to the smooth bed decreased by 22% and 9-13%, respectively. Finally, several equations were developed to predict the hydraulic jump on the rough bed. The correlations had R2 values of more than 0.988 and NRMSE values of less than 2.5%. These highly accurate equations are easy and simple to apply for the design of enlarged stilling basins.


Main Subjects

  1. Nayebzadeh, M.a. Lotfollahi-yaghin, R. Daneshfaraz, Experimental study of Energy Dissipation at a Vertical Drop Equipped with Vertical Screen with Gradually Expanding at the Downstream, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, (2019).
  2. Daneshfaraz, M. Majediasl, R. Mirzaee, P. Parsamehr, Experimental study of the roughness bed with non-continuous trapezoidal elements on S-jump characteristics in the non-prismatic rectangular channel, Sharif Journal of Civil Engineering, (2020) (in Persian).
  3. Parsaie, A.H. Haghiabi, M. Saneie, H. Torabi, Prediction of energy dissipation on the stepped spillway using the multivariate adaptive regression splines, ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 22(3) (2016) 281-292.
  4. Daneshfaraz, M. Majedi Asl, S. Razmi, R. Norouzi, J. Abraham, Experimental investigation of the effect of dual horizontal screens on the hydraulic performance of a vertical drop, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 17(5) (2020) 2927-2936.
  5. Rajaratnam, Hydraulic jumps, in: Advances in hydroscience, Elsevier, 1967, pp. 197-280.
  6. H. Hager, R. Bremen, N. Kawagoshi, Classical hydraulic jump: length of roller, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 28(5) (1990) 591-608.
  7. Vischer, W. Hager, Energy dissipators—hydraulic design considerations, IAHR Hydraulic Structures Design Manual, (9) (1995).
  8. Chanson, T. Brattberg, Experimental study of the air-water shear flow in a hydraulic jump, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 26(4) (2000) 583-607
  9. Herbrand, The spatial hydraulic jump, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 11(3) (1973) 205-218.
  10. Daneshfaraz, M. Majedi Asl, R. Mirzaee, Experimental Study of Expanding Effect and Sand-Roughened Bed on Hydraulic Jump Characteristics, Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 50(4) (2019) 885-896 (in Persian).
  11. Daneshfaraz, R. Mirzaee, a. Ghaderi, M. MajediAsl, The S-jump's Characteristics in the Rough Sudden Expanding Stilling Basin, AUT Journal of Civil Engineering, (2019)
  12. Bremen, Expanding stilling basin, EPFL-LCH, 1990.
  13. Kusnetzow, Die Fliessbewegung bei plotzlicher Verbreirerung des Strombettes, Gidrotechniceskoe Stroitelstvo, 27(6) (1958) 34-37.
  14. Unny, The spatial hydraulic jump, in: IX IAHR Congress Belgrade, 1961, pp. 32-42.
  15. Rajaratnam, K. Subramanya, Hydraulic jumps below abrupt symmetrical expansions, Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 94(2) (1968) 481-504.
  16. Hager, Hydraulic jump in non-prismatic rectangular channels, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 23(1) (1985) 21-35.
  17. Bremen, W.H. Hager, T-jump in abruptly expanding channel, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 31(1) (1993) 61-78.
  18. Alhamid, S-jump characteristics on sloping basins, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 42(6) (2004) 657-662.
  19. A. Matin, M. Hasan, M. Islam, Experiment on hydraulic jump in sudden expansion in a sloping rectangular channel, Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 36(2) (2008) 65-77.
  20. Pagliara, M. Palermo, I. Carnacina, Scour and hydraulic jump downstream of block ramps in expanding stilling basins, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 47(4) (2009) 503-511.
  21. Zare, J. Doering, Forced hydraulic jumps below abrupt expansions, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 137(8) (2011) 825-835.
  22. Jesudhas, R. Balachandar, T. Bolisetti, Numerical study of a symmetric submerged spatial hydraulic jump, Journal of Hydraulic Research (2019) 1-15.
  23. Chow, 1959, Open channel hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  24. Chanson, R. Carvalho, Hydraulic jumps and stilling basins, Energy Dissipation in Hydraulic Structures; Chanson, H., Ed.; CRC Press: Leiden, The Netherlands, (2015) 65-104.
  25. Ead, N. Rajaratnam, Hydraulic jumps on corrugated beds, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 128(7) (2002) 656-663.
  26. AboulAtta, G. Ezizah, N. Yousif, S. Fathy, Design of stilling basins using artificial roughness, International journal of civil and environmental engineering, 3(2) (2011) 65-71.
  27. Samadi-Boroujeni, M. Ghazali, B. Gorbani, R.F. Nafchi, Effect of triangular corrugated beds on the hydraulic jump characteristics, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 40(9) (2013) 841-847
  28. Pagliara, M. Palermo, Hydraulic jumps on rough and smooth beds: aggregate approach for horizontal and adverse-sloped beds, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 53(2) (2015) 243-252.
  29. Kumar, A. Lodhi, Hydraulic jump over sloping rough floors, ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 22(2) (2016) 127-134.
  30. Parsamehr, D. Farsadizadeh, A. Hosseinzadeh Dalir, A. Abbaspour, M.J. Nasr Esfahani, Characteristics of hydraulic jump on rough bed with adverse slope, ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 23(3) (2017) 301-307.
  31. Palermo, S. Pagliara, A review of hydraulic jump properties on both smooth and rough beds in sloping and adverse channels, (2017).
  32. Felder, H. Chanson, Air-water flow patterns of hydraulic jumps on uniform beds macroroughness, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 144(3) (2018) 04017068.
  33. Khosravinia, H. Sanikhani, C. Abdi, Application of soft computing techniques to Predict of hydraulic jump length on rough beds, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering, 6(2) (2018) 147-162.
  34. Norouzi, R. Daneshfaraz, A. Bazyar, The Study of Energy Depreciation due to the use of Vertical Screen in the Downstream of Inclined Drops by Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, (2019) -.
  35. Neisi, M. Shafai Bejestan, Characteristics of S-jump on Roughened Bed Stilling Basin, Journal of Water Sciences Research, 5(2) (2013) 25-34.
  36. Torkamanzad, A. Hosseinzadeh Dalir, F. Salmasi, A. Abbaspour, Hydraulic Jump below Abrupt Asymmetric Expanding Stilling Basin on Rough Bed, Water, 11(9) (2019) 1756.
  37. Bitri, S. Grazhdani, A. Ahmeti, Validation of the AquaCrop model for full and deficit irrigated potato production in environmental condition of Korça Zone, South-eastern Albania, in, IJIRSET, 2014.
  38. Bradley, A. Peterka, The hydraulic design of stilling basins: hydraulic jumps on a horizontal apron (basin i), Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 83(5) (1957) 1-24.
  39. H. Hager, R. Sinniger, Flow characteristics of the hydraulic jump in a stilling basin with an abrupt bottom rise, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 23(2) (1985) 101-113.