Improving Behavioral Properties of Dispersive Clay by Addition of Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash and Hydrated Lime

Document Type : Research Article


Faculty of Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


One of the methods to improve the quality of dispersive clays to reduce its washout tendency is to add lime with a proportion of 4% in construction projects. Besides, adding lime will lead to the stabilization of the soil furthermore. Therefore, if the stability of soil is of concern, some portion of soil may be replaced by lime. In this paper, the incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), mixed with hydrated lime by appropriate proportions and about the duration of the curing process, was used to improve specifications and parameters of dispersive clay. Afterward, the effect of this mixture on unconfined compressive strength relying on the dispersive properties of soil and the curing process of the combination was investigated at different periods. This research aims is to investigate the cementation process of dispersive clay with the addition of ISSA and I.L mixturet to curing durations. Both mixtures were added to dispersive clay in 2, 4, 8, and 16 percent by weight. Also, the proportion of ISSA to hydrated lime is 4: 1 in weight.  Results of the tests showed that the unconfined compressive strength of the test specimens was increased by more than three times compared to the pure clay by adding hydrated lime and ISSA, indicating numerous potential applications of the mixture for soil improvement and administrative affairs in geotechnical engineering as well as practical applications in environmental engineering.


Main Subjects

[1] T.S. Umesh, Characterization of Dispersive Soils, Materials Sciences and Applications, 02 (2011) 629-633.
[2] A. Belarbi, A. Zadjaoui, A. Bekkouche, Dispersive clay: influence of physical and chemical properties on dispersion degree, EJGE, 18 (2013) 1727-1738.
[3] S. Sayehvand, M. Dehghani, Identification and management of dispersive soils, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 19 (2014) 9023-9033.
[4] A. Goodarzi, M. Salimi, Stabilization treatment of a dispersive clayey soil using granulated blast furnace slag and basic oxygen furnace slag, Applied Clay Science, 108 (2015) 61-69.
[5] H. Jafari, M. Hassanlou, Evaluating chemical stabilization of dispersive clay by aluminum sulfate (alum), World Appl Sci J, 18 (2012) 613-616.
[6] T. Umesha, S. Dinesh, P. Sivapullaiah, Control of dispersivity of soil using lime and cement, International journal of geology, 3(1) (2009) 8-16.
[7] A. Vakili, M. Selamat, H. Moayedi, H. Amani, Stabilization of dispersive soils by pozzolan, in:  Forensic Engineering 2012: Gateway to a Safer Tomorrow, 2013, pp. 726-735.
[8] S. Donatello, C.R. Cheeseman, Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): A review, Waste Management, 33(11) (2013) 2328-2340.
[9] D.-F. Lin, K.-L. Lin, M.-J. Hung, H.-L. Luo, Sludge ash/hydrated lime on the geotechnical properties of soft soil, Journal of hazardous materials, 145(1-2) (2007) 58-64.
[10] K. Norouzian, N. Abbasi, J.A. Koupai, Use of sewage sludge ash and hydrated lime to improve the engineering properties of clayey soils, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 36(3) (2018) 1575-1586.
[11] Y.-f. Zhou, J.-s. Li, J.-x. Lu, C. Cheeseman, C.S. Poon, Recycling incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) as a cementitious binder by lime activation, Journal of Cleaner Production, 244 (2020) 118856.
[12] N. Hataf, P. Ghadir, N. Ranjbar, Investigation of soil stabilization using chitosan biopolymer, Journal of Cleaner Production, 170 (2018) 1493-1500.
[13] L. Chen, D.-F. Lin, Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162(1) (2009) 321-327.
[14] J.-H. Tay, W.-K. Yip, K.-Y. Show, Clay-blended sludge as lightweight aggregate concrete material, Journal of environmental engineering, 117(6) (1991) 834-844.
[15] A. Yagüe, S. Valls, E. Vazquez, Use of cement Portland mortar of stabilised dry sewage sludge in construction applications, WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 56 (2002).
[16] A. International, Annual book of ASTM standards, Annual book of ASTM standards.,  (2001).
[17] J. Sheraed, L.P. Dunnigan, R.S. Decker, Identification and nature of dispersive soils, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 102(Proc. Paper# 12052) (1976).
[18] D.o.T.M. Division, Method of test for maximum density and relative compaction device, Test Method Nev. T101 F December 1, State of Nevada, 2008.
[19] A. Muhmed, D. Wanatowski, Effect of lime stabilisation on the strength and microstructure of clay, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 6(3) (2013) 87-94.