Study of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams with Straight- and Hooked-End Bar Mid-Span Lap Splices

Document Type : Research Article


1 Islamic Azad University, Lakehead University

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Lakehead University



Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) has been used in reinforced concrete structures as the main bar because of its durability against corrosion. Moreover, there was no data regarding the bonding behavior of GFRP 180-degree hooked-end bar in a four-point flexural bending beam test. In order to investigate the effect of end bars on the bond strength between concrete and reinforcing bars, four full-scale beams with GFRP bottom bars had been tested under four-point flexural bending by the authors and their colleagues. In this research, these beams were modeled numerically. Two of the specimens had straight-end bars while others had hooked-end bars. Sensitivity analysis was performed to find proper values for verification such as dilation angle, viscosity parameter and mesh size. Then, parametric study was conducted on both types of the beams. It was concluded that using solid elements for all parts of the model led to an accurate result. The length of lap splices in the range of 15 to 40 times of the bar’s diameter had not significant effect on beams’ behavior. Moreover, by increasing the number or diameter of the GFRP bars, strength increased after cracking. Also, initial stiffness in continuous bar beam was higher than lap splice bar beams. But after cracking, beams with lap splices bars had higher strength.


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