Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment and Geotechnical Seismic Micro-zonation of Kangavar with Ambient Vibration and Electrical Resistivity Analysis

Document Type : Research Article


1 Civil Engineering Department, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Civil & Architechture Department, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

3 Mining Engineering, Amir Kabir Univ. of Tech., Tehran



Kangavar city is located at Kermanshah province west of Iran and northern part of Zagros Mountains. Zagros is known to be the most seismic region in Iran. Thus, seismicity and geotechnical micro-zonation of Kangavar are set the goals of this research. To do this, firstly, following a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis the peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration on seismic bedrock is elaborated using the CRISIS2007 software. Secondly, to investigate the site conditions series of microtremor measurements at 15 points in the vicinity of the city is carried out and the natural frequency map and shear wave velocity profile for the ground are determined using Geopsy software. This should note that the thickness of the alluvial is small in northern part of the city. Furthermore, the results of electrical resistivity tests are used to investigate the alluvium depth and discontinuity in ground profile. This analysis confirmed the existence of thicker alluvial in southeast part of the city. Finally, according to all findings of this research a general recommendation for urban planning and future building and construction is proposed according to Iranian national code for earthquake resistant buildings, as a function of three variables; Geo-hazards type, Importance, and lateral resistant structural system.


Main Subjects

[1] J. Stöcklin, “Possible ancient continental margins in Iran”, The geology of continental margins, Springer, (1974) 873-887.
[2] J. Stocklin, “Structural history and tectonics of Iran: a review”, AAPG Bulletin, 52(7) (1968) 1229-1258.
[3] Geological Survey & Mineral Exploration of Iran (
[4] International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (
[5] R.C. Henrickson, “A regional perspective on Godin III cultural development in central western Iran”, 24(1) (1986) 1-55.
[6] E. Shabani, N. Mirzaei, “Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Kermanshah-Sanandaj region of Western Iran”, Earthquake Spectra, 23(1) (2007) 175-197.
[7] M. Kamalian, M.K. Jafari, “The General Standards of Urban Designing and Constructing Base On Seismic Geotechnical Considerations” Soffeh Scientific Publication of Architecture and Urban Planning, (2007) 140-164 (in Persian).
[8] M.K. Jafari, M. Kamalian, A. Razmkhah, A. Sohrabi, “North of Tehran site effect microzonation”, in: 13th World conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 2004.
[9] M. Akbari, M. Ghafoori, N.H. Moghaddas, G.R. Lashkaripour, “Seismic microzonation of Mashhad city, northeast Iran”, Annals of geophysics, 54(4) (2011) 424-434.
[10] A. Ghalandarzadeh, S. Sahraeian, A. Kavand, B.K. Moghaddam, “Seismic Microzonation of Shiraz City, Southwest of Iran”, in: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics IV, (2008).
[11] S. Haeri, M.H. Bonab, “Seismic microzonation of the city of Tabriz in Iran”, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing), 1(3) (2000) 63-70.
[12] M. Kamalian, M.K. Jafari, M.R. Ghayamghamian, A. Shafiee, H, Hamzehloo, E, Haghshenas, A. Sohrabi-bidar, “Site effect microzonation of Qom, Iran”, Engineering Geology, 97(1-2) (2008) 63-79.
[13] T.S. Hashemi, A. Mohamadi, A. Salamat, Multi Disciplinary Approach for Seismic Microzonation of Bam City, “Oloom-e-Zamin”, 20(78) (2011) 17-26 (in Persian).
[14] M. Biglari, I. Ashayeri, R. Moftizadeh, “Urban Planning of Kermanshah City Based on the Seismic Geotechnical Hazards”, Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 17(3) (2015) 203-211.
[15] N. Ambraseys, N. Douglas, S.K. Sarma, P.M. Smit, “Equations for the estimation of strong ground motions from shallow crustal earthquakes using data from Europe and the Middle East: horizontal peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration”, Bulletin of earthquake engineering, 3(1) (2005) 1-53.
[16] K.W. Campbell, Y. Bozorgnia, “Updated near-source ground-motion (attenuation) relations for the horizontal and vertical components of peak ground acceleration and acceleration response spectra”, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 93(1) (2003) 314-331.
[17] K.W. Campbell, “Empirical near-source attenuation relationships for horizontal and vertical components of peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and pseudo-absolute acceleration response spectra”, Seismological research letters, 68(1) (1997) 154-179.
[18] M. Zare, “An Introduction to Applied Seismology”, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran, (2005).
[19] H. Ghasemi, M. zare, Y. Fukushima, K. Koketsu, “An empirical spectral ground-motion model for Iran”, Journal of Seismology, 13(4) (2009) 499-515.
[20] F. Sinaiean, M. Zare, Y. Fukushima. “A study on the empirical PGA attenuation relationships in Iran”, in: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on seismology and earthquake engineering, Tehran (2007).
[21] The Evaluation of Risks and Seismic Risksin Provinces Ghazvin, Zanjan, Hamedan, and Kermanshah. The Final Report of the First Part: Seismic Microzonation of Kermanshah, in: Global Bank Project Number 4697-IRN (2009).
[22] S.B. Shamoradi, “Seismic Microzonation and Recommendations on Land Use and Construction (Case Study)”, Master’s theses, Malayer University. Iran, (2016) (in Persian).
[23] B. Gutenberg, C.F. Richter, “Earthquake magnitude, intensity, energy, and acceleration: (Second paper)”, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 46(2) (1956) 105-145.
[24] B. Tavakoli, M. Ghafory-Ashtiany, “Seismic hazard assessment of Iran:, Annals of geophysics, 42(6) (1999).
[25] M. Ordaz, A. Aguilar, J. Arboleda, “CRISIS2007 Ver 7.6, PROGRAM FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC HAZARD, User Manual”, http:/
[26] M. Nogoshi, T. Igarashi, “On the amplitude characteristics of microtremor, Part II”, Journal of the seismological society of Japan, 24 (1971) 26-40.
[27] Y. Nakamura, “A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface”, QR Railway Tech. Res. Inst., 30(1) (1989) 25-33.
[28] SESAME European research project D23. 12, “Guidelines for the Implementation of the H/V Spectral Ratio Technique on Ambient Vibrations Measurements, Processing and Interpretation”, European Commission-Research General Directorate, Project No. EVGl-CT-2000-00026 SESAME (2004).
[29] D. Fäh, F. Kind, D. Giardini, “Inversion of local S-wave velocity structures from average H/V ratios, and their use for the estimation of site-effects”, Journal of Seismology, 7(4) (2003) 449-467.
[30] K. Tokimatsu, “Geotechnical site characterization using surface waves”, in: Proc., First International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Tokyo, Japan (1995).
[31] A.K. Mundepi, J.J. Galiana-Merino, A.K.L. Asthana, S. Rosa-Cintas, “Soil characteristics in Doon Valley (north west Himalaya, India) by inversion of H/V spectral ratios from ambient noise measurements”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 77 (2015) 309-320.
[32] A. Ghalandarzadeh, A. Kavand, “Determining shear wave velocity of an alluvial sedimentary layers using microtremor measurements”, Journal of civil engineering and surveying – Technical College, 44(4) (2010) 525-536.
[33] M. Wathelet, “An improved neighborhood algorithm: parameter conditions and dynamic scaling”, Geophysical Research Letters, 35(9) (2008).
[34] Permanent Committee for Revising the Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, “Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings Standard No. 2800 (Fourth Edition)”, (2014).